1972 Hebrew ADVERTISING GYMNASTICS POSTER Israel HEALTH & FITNESS Graphic DESIGN

EUR 74,47 Achat immédiat ou Offre directe 29d 9h, EUR 15,77 Livraison, 30-Day Retours, Remboursement si vous n'avez pas reçu ce que vous aviez commandé en cas de paiement avec PayPal.

Vendeur: judaica-bookstore (2.001) 100%, Lieu où se trouve: TEL AVIV, Lieu de livraison: Worldwide, Numéro de l'objet: 283225655882 DESCRIPTION : Here for sale is an vintage OFFICIAL and ORIGINAL illustrated over 45 years old ISRAEL POSTER , Being an ADVERTISING POSTER , Promoting PHYSICAL FITNESS and HEALTH towards the GOVERNMENTAL "WEEK OF HEALTH" which took place in 1972 ( Fully dated ). The impressive poster with its colorful GRAPGIC DESIGN which was published by the Ministery of Culture and Education depicts a man's image , Executing simple gymnastic excercises . Around 20" x 28" . Chromo paper. VERY Good condition. Folding signs. ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ) . Will be sent in a special protective rigid sealed packaging. PAYMENTS : Payment method accepted : Paypal . SHIPPMENT : Shipp worldwide via registered airmail is $18 .Will be sent in a special protective rigid sealed packaging. Handling within 3-5 days after payment. Estimated duration 14 days.MORE DETAILS : Physical fitness is a general state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities. Physical fitness is generally achieved through proper nutrition,[1] moderate-vigorousphysical exercise, physical activity,[2] and sufficient rest.[3] Before the industrial revolution, fitness was defined as the capacity to carry out the day’s activities without undue fatigue. However, with automation and changes in lifestyles physical fitness is now considered a measure of the body's ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to resist hypokinetic diseases, and to meet emergency situations.[4] Contents [hide] 1 Fitness 2 Activity guidelines 3 Training 3.1 High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) 3.2 Cardiovascular training 4 Effects 4.1 Controlling blood pressure 4.2 Cancer prevention 4.3 Inflammation 4.4 Immune system 4.5 Cardiovascular disease prevention 4.6 Weight control 4.7 Neuropsychological effects 4.8 Menopause and physical fitness 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links Fitness[edit] Fitness is defined[5] as the quality or state of being fit. Around 1950, perhaps consistent with the Industrial Revolution and the treatise of World War II, the term "fitness" increased in western vernacular by a factor of ten.[6] Modern definition of fitness describe either a person or machine's ability to perform a specific function or a holistic definition of human adaptability to cope with various situations. This has led to an interrelation of human fitness and attractiveness which has mobilized global fitness and fitness equipment industries. Regarding specific function, fitness is attributed to personnel who possess significant aerobic or anaerobic ability, i.e. strength or endurance. A holistic definition of fitness is described by Greg Glassman in the CrossFit journal as an increased work capacity across broad times and modal domains; mastery of several attributes of fitness including strength, endurance, power, speed, balance and coordination and being able to improve the amount of work done in a given time with any of these domains.[7] A well rounded fitness program will improve a person in all aspects of fitness, rather than one, such as only cardio/respiratory endurance or only weight training. A woman performs plank exercise for strengthening of muscles A comprehensive fitness program tailored to an individual typically focuses on one or more specific skills,[8] and on age-[9] or health-related needs such as bone health.[10] Many sources[11] also cite mental, social and emotional healthas an important part of overall fitness. This is often presented in textbooks as a triangle made up of three points, which represent physical, emotional, and mental fitness. Physical fitness can also prevent or treat many chronic health conditions brought on by unhealthy lifestyle or aging.[12] Working out can also help some people sleep better and possibly alleviate some mood disorders in certain individuals.[13] Developing research has demonstrated that many of the benefits of exercise are mediated through the role of skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ. That is, contracting muscles release multiple substances known as myokineswhich promote the growth of new tissue, tissue repair, and various anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases.[14] Activity guidelines[edit] The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans was created by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. This publication suggests that all adults should avoid inactivity to promote good health mentally and physically. For substantial health benefits, adults should participate in at least 150 minutes (two hours and 30 minutes) a week of moderate-intensity, or 75 minutes (1 hour and 15 minutes) a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity. Aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of at least 10 minutes, and preferably, it should be spread throughout the week. For additional and more extensive health benefits, adults should increase their aerobic physical activity to 300 minutes (5 hours) a week of moderate-intensity, or 150 minutes a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity. Additional health benefits are gained by engaging in physical activity beyond this amount. Adults should also do muscle-strengthening activities that are moderate or high intensity and involve all major muscle groups on 2 or more days a week, as these activities provide additional health benefits.[15] Training[edit] Specific or task-oriented fitness is a person's ability to perform in a specific activity with a reasonable efficiency: for example, sports or military service. Specific training prepares athletes to perform well in their sports. Examples are: 100 m sprint: in a sprint the athlete must be trained to work anaerobically throughout the race, an example of how to do this would be interval training. Middle distance running: athletes require both speed and endurance to gain benefit out of this training. The hard working muscles are at their peak for a longer period of time as they are being used at that level for longer period of time.[16] Marathon: in this case the athlete must be trained to work aerobically and their endurance must be built-up to a maximum. Many fire fighters and police officers undergo regular fitness testing to determine if they are capable of the physically demanding tasks required of the job.[17] Members of armed forces will often be required to pass a formal fitness test – for example soldiers of the US Army must be able to pass the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT).[18] Hill sprints: requires a level of fitness to begin with, the exercise is particularly good for the leg muscles. The army often trains doing mountain climbing and races. Sand running creates less strain on leg muscles than running on grass or concrete. This is because sand collapses beneath the foot softening the landing. Sand training is an effective way to lose weight and become fit as its proven you need more effort (one and a half times more) to run on the soft sand than on a hard surface.[19] Aquajogging is a form of exercise that decreases strain on joints and bones. The water supplies minimal impact[clarification needed] to muscles and bones which is good for those recovering from injury. Furthermore, the resistance of the water as one jogs through it provides an enhanced effect of exercise (the deeper you are the greater the force needed to pull your leg through).[20] Swimmers perform squats prior to entering the pool in a U.S. military base, 2011 Swimming: Squatting exercise helps in enhancing a swimmer's start.[21] In order for physical fitness to benefit the health of an individual, an unknown response in the person called a stimulus will be triggered by the exertion. When exercise is performed with the correct amount of intensity, duration and frequency, a significant amount of improvement can occur. The person may overall feel better but the physical effects on the human body take weeks or months to notice and possibly years for full development. For training purposes, exercise must provide a stress or demand on either a function or tissue. To continue improvements, this demand must eventually increase little over an extended period of time. This sort of exercise training has three basic principles: overload, specificity, and progression. These principles are related to health but also enhancement of physical working capacity.[22] High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)[edit] High Intensity Interval Training consists of repeated, short bursts of exercise, completed at a high level of intensity. These sets of intense activity are followed by a predetermined time of rest or low intensity activity.[23] Studies have shown that exercising at a higher intensity has increased cardiac benefits for humans, compared to when exercising at a low or moderate level.[24] When your workout consists of an HIIT session, your body has to work harder to replace the oxygen it lost. Research into the benefits of HIIT have revealed that it can be very successful for reducing fat, especially around the abdominal region. Furthermore, when compared to continuous moderate exercise, HIIT proves to burn more calories and increase the amount of fat burned post- HIIT session.[25] Lack of time is one of the main reasons stated for not exercising; HIIT is a great alternative for those people because the duration of an HIIT session can be as short as 10 minutes, making it much quicker than conventional workouts.[26] Cardiovascular training[edit] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Cardiovascular capacity can be measured using VO2 max, a measure of the amount of oxygen the body can uptake and utilize.[27] Cardiorespiratory training involves movement that increases the heart rate to improve the body's oxygen consumption. This form of exercise is an important part of all training regiments ranging from professional athletes to the everyday person. Also, it helps increase stamina. Examples are: Jogging – Running at a steady and gentle pace. This form of exercise is great for maintaining weight. Elliptical Training – This is a stationary exercise machine used to perform walking, or running without causing excessive stress on the joints. This form of exercise is perfect for people with achy hips, knees and ankles. Walking – Moving at a fairly regular pace for a short, medium or long distance. Treadmill training – Many treadmills have programs set up that offers a numerous amount of different workout plans. One effective cardiovascular activity would be to switch between running and walking. Typically warm up first by walking and then switch off between walking for three minutes and running for three minutes. Swimming – Using the arms and legs to keep oneself afloat and moving either forwards or backwards. This is a good full body exercise for those who are looking to strengthen their core while improving cardiovascular endurance. Cycling – Riding a bicycle typically involves longer distances than walking or jogging. This is another low stress exercise on the joints and is great for improving leg strength.[28] Effects[edit] Controlling blood pressure[edit] Physical fitness has proven to result in positive effects on the body's blood pressure because staying active and exercising regularly builds up a stronger heart. The heart is the main organ in charge of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Engaging in a physical activity will create a rise in blood pressure, once the activity is stopped, however, the individual’s blood pressure will return to normal. The more physical activity that one engages in, the easier this process becomes, resulting in a more ‘fit’ individual.[29] Through regular physical fitness, the heart does not have to work as hard to create a rise in blood pressure, which lowers the force on the arteries, and lowers the over all blood pressure.[30] Cancer prevention[edit] Centers for disease control and prevention provide lifestyle guidelines of maintaining a balanced diet and engaging in physical activity to reduce the risk of disease. The WCRF/ American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) published a list of recommendations that reflect the evidence they have found through consistency in fitness and dietary factors that directly relate to Cancer prevention. The WCRF/AICR recommendations include the following: "Be as lean as possible without becoming underweight Each week, adults should engage in at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity or 75 minutes of vigorous intensity physical activity Children should engage in at least one hour of moderate or vigorous physical activity each week Be physically active for at least thirty minutes every day Avoid sugar, limit the consumption of energy packed foods Balance your diet with a variety of vegetables, grains, fruits, legumes, etc. Limit sodium intake, the consumption of red meats and the consumption of processed meats Limit alcoholic drinks to two for men and one for women a day"[31] These recommendations are also widely supported by the American Cancer Society. The guidelines have been evaluated and individuals that have higher guideline adherence scores substantially reduce cancer risk as well as help towards control with a multitude of chronic health problems. Regular physical activity is a factor that helps reduce an individual’s blood pressure and improves cholesterol levels, two key components that correlate with heart disease and Type 2 Diabetes.[32] The American Cancer Society encourages the public to "adopt a physically active lifestyle" by meeting the criteria in a variety of physical activities such as hiking, swimming, circuit training, resistance raining, lifting, etc. It is understood that cancer is not a disease that can be cured by physical fitness alone, however because it is a multifactorial disease, physical fitness is a controllable prevention. The large associations tied with being physically fit and reduced cancer risk are enough to provide a strategy to reduce cancer risk.[31] The American Cancer Society assorts different levels of activity ranging from moderate to vigorous to clarify the recommended time spent on a physical activity. These classifications of physical activity consider the intentional exercise and basic activities done on a daily basis and give the public a greater understanding by what fitness levels suffice as future disease prevention. Inflammation[edit] Studies have shown an association between increased physical activity and reduced inflammation.[33] It produces both a short-term inflammatory response and a long-term anti-inflammatory effect.[34] Physical activity reduces inflammation in conjunction with or independent of changes in body weight.[35] However, the mechanisms linking physical activity to inflammation are unknown. Immune system[edit] Physical activity boosts the immune system. This is dependent on the concentration of endogenous factors (such as sex hormones, metabolic hormones and growth hormones), body temperature, blood flow, hydration status and body position.[36] Physical activity has shown to increase the levels of natural killer (NK) cells, NK T cells, macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils, complements, cytokines, antibodies and T cytotoxic cells.[37][38] However, the mechanism linking physical activity to immune system is not fully understood. Cardiovascular disease prevention[edit] Physical activity affects one’s blood pressure, cholesterol levels, blood lipid levels, blood clotting factors and the strength of blood vessels. All factors that directly correlate to cardiovascular disease. It also improves the body’s use of insulin. People who are at risk for diabetes, Type 2 (insulin resistant) especially, benefit greatly from physical activity because it activates a better usage of insulin and protects the heart. Those who develop diabetes have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In a study where a sample of around ten thousand adults from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, physical activity and metabolic risk factors such as insulin resistance, inflammation, dyslipidemia were assessed. The study adjusted basic confounders with moderate/vigorous physical activity and the relation with CVD mortality. The results displayed physical activity being associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality that was independent of traditional metabolic risk factors. The American Heart Association recommendations include the same findings as provided in the WCRF/ AICR recommendations list for people who are healthy. In regards to people with lower blood pressure or cholesterol, the association recommends that these individuals aim for around forty minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity around three or four times a week.[39] Weight control[edit] Achieving resilience through physical fitness promotes a vast and complex range of health related benefits. Individuals who keep up physical fitness levels generally regulate their distribution of body fat and stay away from obesity. Abdominal fat, specifically visceral fat, is most directly affected by engaging in aerobic exercise. Strength training has been known to increase the amount of muscle in the body, however it can also reduce body fat.[40] Sex steroid hormones, insulin, and an appropriate immune response are factors that mediate metabolism in relation to the abdominal fat. Therefore, physical fitness provides weight control through regulation of these bodily functions.[41] Neuropsychological effects[edit] Main article: Neurobiological effects of physical exercise § Long-term effects Regular exercise is effective for preventing the age-related decline in cognition and improving overall neuropsychological function. The increased synthesis ofneurotrophic factors in the body and brain and the resulting neurogenesis in various brain structures is largely responsible for these effects. Exercise also has persistent antidepressant effects and has been found to serve as both a means to prevent and treat drug addictions, particularly psychostimulant addictions. Menopause and physical fitness[edit] Menopause is the term that is used to refer to the stretch of both before and after a woman's last menstrual cycle. there are an instrumental amount of symptoms connected to menopause, most of which can affect the quality of life of the women involved in this stage of her life. One way to reduce the severity of the symptoms is exercise and keeping a healthy level of fitness. Pre or during menopause as the women body changes there can be physical, physiological or internal changes to the body. These changes can be prevented or the reduced with the use of regular exercise. these changes include;[42] Prevention of weight gain: around menopause women tend to lose their muscle mass and have it replaced with abdominal fat. Slight increases in physical exercise can help to prevent this. Reduce the risk of breast cancer: due to the weight loss from regular exercise it may offer protection from breast cancer. Strengthen the bones of the body: Physical activity can slow the bone loss after menopause reducing the chance of bone fractures and osteoporosis. Reduce the risk of disease: Excess weight can increase the risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes, and the regular physical activity can counter these effects. Boost the mood: By being involved in regular activities it can improve the psychological health, this can be the case at any age and not only for times during or after menopause.[43] The Melbourne Women’s Midlife Health Project provided evidence that showed over an eight-year time period 438 were followed. even though the physical activity was not associated with VMS in this cohort at the beginning. women that reported they were physically active everyday at the beginning were 49% less likely to have reported bothersome hot flushes. this in contrast to women who level of activity decreased were more likely to experience bothersome hot flushes.[44] See also[edit] Health Physical exercise Outline of exercise Personal trainer Fitness professional Bodybuilding Physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall healthand wellness. It is performed for various reasons, including increasing growth and development, preventing aging, strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, and merely enjoyment. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts theimmune system and helps prevent "diseases of affluence" such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity.[1][2] It may also help prevent stress and depression, increase quality of sleep and act as a non-pharmaceutical sleep aid to treat diseases such as insomnia, help promote or maintain positive self-esteem, improve mental health, maintain steady digestion and treat constipation and gas, regulate fertility health, and augment an individual's sex appeal or body image, which has been found to be linked with higher levels of self-esteem.[3][4] Childhood obesity is a growing global concern,[5] and physical exercise may help decrease some of the effects of childhood and adult obesity. Some care providers call exercise the "miracle" or "wonder" drug—alluding to the wide variety of benefits that it can provide for many individuals.[6][7] In the United Kingdom two to four hours of light activity are recommended during working hours.[8] This includes walking and standing.[8] In the United States, the CDC/ACSM consensus statement and the Surgeon General's report states that every adult should participate in moderate exercise, such as walking, swimming, and household tasks, for a minimum of 30 minutes daily.[9] Contents [hide] 1 Classification 2 Health effects 2.1 Cardiovascular system 2.2 Immune system 2.3 Cancer 2.4 Brain function 2.5 Sleep 2.6 Excessive exercise 3 Mechanism of effects 4 Public health measures 5 Exercise trends 6 Nutrition and recovery 7 History 8 Other animals 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links Classification[edit] Indian wrestler exercising, 1973 Physical exercises are generally grouped into three types, depending on the overall effect they have on the human body:[10] Aerobic exercise is any physical activity that uses large muscle groups and causes the body to use more oxygen than it would while resting.[10] The goal of aerobic exercise is to increase cardiovascular endurance.[11] Examples of aerobic exercise includecycling, swimming, brisk walking, skipping rope, rowing, hiking, playing tennis, continuous training, and long slow distancetraining.[10] Anaerobic exercise, which includes strength and resistance training, can firm, strengthen, and tone muscles, as well as improve bone strength, balance, and coordination.[10] Examples of strength moves are push-ups, lunges, and bicep curls using dumbbells.[10] Anaerobic exercise also include weight training, functional training, eccentric training, Interval training, sprinting, and high-intensity interval training increase short-term muscle strength.[10][12] Flexibility exercises stretch and lengthen muscles.[10] Activities such as stretching help to improve joint flexibility and keep muscles limber.[10] The goal is to improve the range of motion which can reduce the chance of injury.[10][13] Physical exercise can also include training that focuses on accuracy, agility, power, and speed.[14] Sometimes the terms 'dynamic' and 'static' are used.[citation needed] 'Dynamic' exercises such as steady running, tend to produce a lowering of the diastolic blood pressure during exercise, due to the improved blood flow. Conversely, static exercise (such as weight-lifting) can cause the systolic pressure to rise significantly (during the exercise).[citation needed] Health effects[edit] A review of correlational studies suggest that physical exercise is important for maintaining physical fitness and can contribute positively to maintaining a healthy weight, regulating digestive health, building and maintaining healthy bone density, muscle strength, and joint mobility, promoting physiological well-being, reducing surgical risks, and strengthening the immune system. Some studies indicate that exercise may increase life expectancy and quality of life.[15] Moderate levels of exercise have been correlated with preventing aging and improving quality of life by reducing inflammatory potential.[16] People who participate in moderate to high levels of physical exercise have a lower mortality rate compared to individuals who are not physically active.[17] According to the World Health Organization, lack of physical activity contributes to approximately 17% of heart disease and diabetes, 12% of falls in the elderly, and 10% of breast cancer and colon cancer.[18] Not everyone benefits equally from exercise. There is tremendous variation in individual response to training; where most people will see a moderate increase in endurance from aerobic exercise, some individuals will as much as double their oxygen uptake, while others can never augment endurance.[19][20] However, muscle hypertrophy from resistance training is primarily determined by diet and testosterone.[21] This genetic variation in improvement from training is one of the key physiological differences between elite athletes and the larger population.[22][23] Studies have shown that exercising in middle age leads to better physical ability later in life.[24] Cardiovascular system[edit] The beneficial effect of exercise on the cardiovascular system is well documented. There is a direct correlation between physical inactivity and cardiovascular mortality, and physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease. Low levels of physical exercise increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases mortality.[25] Children who participate in physical exercise experience greater loss of body fat and increased cardiovascular fitness.[26] Studies have shown that academic stress in youth increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in later years; however, these risks can be greatly decreased with regular physical exercise.[27] There is a dose-response relation between the amount of exercise performed from approximately 700 to 2000 kcal of energy expenditure per week and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged and elderly populations. The greatest potential for reduced mortality is in the sedentary who become moderately active. Studies have shown that since heart disease is the leading cause of death in women, regular exercise in aging women leads to healthier cardiovascular profiles. Most beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular disease mortality can be attained through moderate-intensity activity (40% to 60% of maximal oxygen uptake, depending on age). Persons who modify their behavior after myocardial infarction to include regular exercise have improved rates of survival. Persons who remain sedentary have the highest risk for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality.[28] According to the American Heart Association, exercise reduces blood pressure, LDL and total cholesterol, and body weight. It increases HDL cholesterol, insulin sensitivity, and exercise tolerance.[9] Immune system[edit] Although there have been hundreds of studies on exercise and the immune system, there is little direct evidence on its connection to illness. Epidemiologicalevidence suggests that moderate exercise has a beneficial effect on the human immune system; an effect which is modeled in a J curve. Moderate exercise has been associated with a 29% decreased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), but studies of marathon runners found that their prolonged high-intensity exercise was associated with an increased risk of infection occurrence. However, another study did not find the effect. Immune cell functions are impaired following acute sessions of prolonged, high-intensity exercise, and some studies have found that athletes are at a higher risk for infections. Studies have shown that strenuous stress for long durations, such as training for a marathon, can suppress the immune system by decreasing the concentration of lymphocytes.[29] The immune systems of athletes and nonathletes are generally similar. Athletes may have slightly elevated natural killer cell count and cytolytic action, but these are unlikely to be clinically significant.[30] Vitamin C supplementation has been associated with lower incidence of URTIs in marathon runners.[30] Biomarkers of inflammation such as C-reactive protein, which are associated with chronic diseases, are reduced in active individuals relative to sedentary individuals, and the positive effects of exercise may be due to its anti-inflammatory effects. In individuals with heart disease, exercise interventions lower blood levels of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein, an important cardiovascular risk marker.[31] The depression in the immune system following acute bouts of exercise may be one of the mechanisms for this anti-inflammatory effect.[30] Cancer[edit] A systematic review evaluated 45 studies that examined the relationship between physical activity and cancer survivorship. According to the study results "There was consistent evidence from 27 observational studies that physical activity is associated with reduced all-cause, breast cancer–specific, and colon cancer–specific mortality".[32] Epigenetic effects[edit] Physical exercise was correlated with a lower methylation frequency of two tumor suppressor genes, CACNA2D3 and L3MBTL.[33][34] Hypermethylation ofCACNA2D3 is associated with gastric cancer, while hypermethylation of L3MBTL is associated with breast cancer, brain tumors and hematological malignancies.[33][34][35][36] A recent study indicates that exercise results in reduced DNA methylation at CpG sites on genes associated with breast cancer.[37] Cancer cachexia[edit] Physical exercise is becoming a widely accepted non-pharmacological intervention for the prevention and attenuation of cancer cachexia.[38] "Cachexia is a multiorganic syndrome associated with cancer, characterized by inflammation, body weight loss (at least 5%) and muscle and adipose tissue wasting".[39] The exercise-induced transcription coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) (see PPARGC1A), which suppresses FoxO and NF-κB dependent transcription during atrophy induced by fasting or denervation, may be a key intermediate responsible for the beneficial antiatrophic effects of physical exercise on cancer cachexia.[40][41] The exercise-induced isoform PGC-1α4, which can repress myostatin and induce IGF1 and hypertrophy, is a potential drug target for treatment of cancer cachexia.[42] Other factors, such as JUNB and SIRT1, that maintain skeletal muscle mass and promote hypertrophy are also induced with regular physical exercise.[43][44] Brain function[edit] Main article: Neurobiological effects of physical exercise This article appears to contradict the article Neurobiological effects of physical exercise. Please see discussion on the linked talk page. Please do not remove this message until the contradictions are resolved.(February 2015) Physical activity has been shown to be neuroprotective in many neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases.[45] Evidence suggests that it reduces the risk of developing dementia.[46] The Caerphilly Heart Disease Study followed 2,375 male subjects over 30 years and examined the association between regular physical exercise and dementia. The study found that men who exercised regularly had a 59% reduction in dementia when compared to the men who didn't exercise.[47] In addition, a 2008 review of cognitive enrichment therapies (strategies to slow or reverse cognitive decline) concluded that "physical activity, and aerobic exercise in particular, enhances older adults' cognitive function".[48] In mice, exercise improves cognitive functioning via improvement of spatial learning, and enhancement of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis.[49] In a 2009 study, scientists made two groups of mice swim a water maze, and then in a separate trial subjected them to an unpleasant stimulus to see how quickly they would learn to move away from it. Then, over the next four weeks they allowed one group of mice to run inside their rodent wheels, an activity most mice enjoy, while they forced the other group to work harder on mini-treadmills at a speed and duration controlled by the scientists. They then tested both groups again to track their learning skills and memory. Both groups of mice improved their performances in the water maze from the earlier trial. But only the extra-worked treadmill runners were better in the avoidance task, a skill that, according to neuroscientists, demands a more complicated cognitive response.[50] The mice who were forced to run on the treadmills showed evidence of molecular changes in several portions of their brains when viewed under a microscope, while the voluntary wheel-runners had changes in only one area. According to an author of the study, "our results support the notion that different forms of exercise induce neuroplasticity changes in different brain regions."[51] Furthermore, anecdotal evidence suggests that frequent exercise may reverse alcohol-induced brain damage.[52] There are several possibilities for why exercise is beneficial for the brain. Examples are as follows: Increasing the blood and oxygen flow to the brain Increasing growth factors that help neurogenesis[53] and promoting synaptic plasticity and development of new neuronal pathways [54] Improving short and long term memory Increasing chemicals, such as dopamine, glutamate, norepinephrine, and serotonin, in the brain that increase memory retention, information processing, andcognition[55] Increasing the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system, while reducing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system Physical activity is thought to have other beneficial effects related to cognition as it increases levels of nerve growth factors, which support the survival and growth of a number of neuronal cells.[56] Depression[edit] Further information: Neurobiological effects of physical exercise § Antidepressant effect, and Exercise-induced euphoria Physical exercise, particularly aerobic exercise, has pronounced long-term antidepressant effects[57][58][59][60] and can produce euphoria in the short-term.[61][62][63]Numerous systematic reviews suggest that regular aerobic exercise (at sufficient intensity and duration) has comparable antidepressant efficacy to standard pharmaceutical antidepressants in treating depression.[57][58][59][60] Consequently, current medical evidence supports the use of aerobic exercise as a treatment for depression.[57][58][59][60] The biomolecular basis for exercise-induced antidepressant effects is believed to be a result of increased neurotrophic factor signaling, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor.[58][64] Continuous exercise can produce short-term euphoria, colloquially known as a "runner's high" in distance running or a "rower's high" in crew, through the increased biosynthesis of at least three euphoriant neurochemicals: anandamide (an endocannabinoid),[61] β-endorphin (an endogenous opioid),[62] and phenethylamine (a trace amine and amphetamine analog).[63][65][66] Other types of physical exercise have also been shown to help depression. An increasing issue, prenatal depression, has become more common among pregnant women, and has a negative effect on the mother as well as the developing fetus. Exercise, specifically yoga, has been shown to alleviate this type of depression.[67] In contrast, there is moderate evidence to suggest that engaging in sedentary behavior is linked to an increase in anxiety. However, additional research is needed in order to successfully measure anxiety alone, because of the close relationship it has with depression.[68] Sleep[edit] A 2010 review of published scientific research suggested that exercise generally improves sleep for most people, and helps sleep disorders such as insomnia. The optimum time to exercise may be 4 to 8 hours before bedtime, though exercise at any time of day is beneficial, with the possible exception of heavy exercise taken shortly before bedtime, which may disturb sleep. There is, in any case, insufficient evidence to draw detailed conclusions about the relationship between exercise and sleep.[69] According to a 2005 study, exercise is the most recommended alternative to sleeping pills for resolving insomnia. Sleeping pills are more costly than to make time for a daily routine of staying fit, and may have dangerous side effects in the long run. Exercise can be a healthy, safe and inexpensive way to achieve more and better sleep.[70] Excessive exercise[edit] Too much exercise can be harmful. Without proper rest, the chance of stroke or other circulation problems increases,[71] and muscle tissue may develop slowly. Extremely intense, long-term cardiovascular exercise, as can be seen in athletes who train for multiple marathons, has been associated with scarring of the heart and heart rhythm abnormalities.[72][73][74] Specifically, high cardiac output has been shown to cause enlargement of the left and right ventricle volumes, increased ventricle wall thickness, and greater cardiac mass. These changes further result in myocardial cell damage in the lining of the heart, leading to scar tissue and thickened walls. During these processes, the protein troponin increases in the bloodstream, indicating cardiac muscle cell death and increased stress on the heart itself.[75] Inappropriate exercise can do more harm than good, with the definition of “inappropriate” varying according to the individual. For many activities, especially runningand cycling, there are significant injuries that occur with poorly regimented exercise schedules. Injuries from accidents also remain a major concern,[76] whereas the effects of increased exposure to air pollution seem only a minor concern.[77][78] In extreme instances, over-exercising induces serious performance loss. Unaccustomed overexertion of muscles leads to rhabdomyolysis (damage to muscle) most often seen in new army recruits.[79] Another danger is overtraining, in which the intensity or volume of training exceeds the body's capacity to recover between bouts. One sign of Overtraining Syndrome (OTS) is suppressed immune function, with an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). An increased incidence of URTIs is also associated with high volume/intensity training, as well as with excessive exercise (EE), such as in a marathon.[80] Stopping excessive exercise suddenly may create a change in mood. Exercise should be controlled by each body's inherent limitations. While one set of joints and muscles may have the tolerance to withstand multiple marathons, another body may be damaged by 20 minutes of light jogging. This must be determined for each individual. Too much exercise may cause a woman to miss her periods, a symptom known as amenorrhea.[81] This is a very serious condition which indicates a woman is pushing her body beyond its natural boundaries.[82] Mechanism of effects[edit] Developing research has demonstrated that many of the benefits of exercise are mediated through the role of skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ. That is, contracting muscles release multiple substances known as myokines which promote the growth of new tissue, tissue repair, and multiple anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases.[83] Exercise reduces levels of cortisol, which causes many health problems, both physical and mental.[84] Endurance exercise before meals lowers blood glucose more than the same exercise after meals.[85] There is evidence that vigorous exercise (90–95% of VO2 Max) induces a greater degree of physiological cardiac hypertrophy than moderate exercise (40 to 70% of VO2 Max), but it is unknown whether this has any effects on overall morbidity and/or mortality.[86] Both aerobic and anaerobic exercise work to increase the mechanical efficiency of the heart by increasing cardiac volume (aerobic exercise), or myocardial thickness (strength training). Ventricular hypertrophy, the thickening of the ventricular walls, is generally beneficial and healthy if it occurs in response to exercise. Public health measures[edit] Exercise in space: AstronautDaniel Tani, Expedition 16 flight engineer, works out at the Unity node of the International Space Station using the short bar of the Interim Resistive Exercise Device (IRED) to perform pull-ups to increase his upper body strength while in a microgravity environment Multiple component community-wide campaigns are frequently used in an attempt to increase a population's level of physical activity. A 2015 Cochrane review, however, did not find evidence supporting a benefit.[87] The quality of the underlying evidence was also poor.[87] Survery of brief interventions promoting physical activity found that they are cost-effective, although there are variations between studies.[88] Environmental approaches appear promising: signs that encourage the use of stairs, as well as community campaigns, may increase exercise levels.[89] The city of Bogotá, Colombia, for example, blocks off 113 kilometers (70 mi) of roads on Sundays and holidays to make it easier for its citizens to get exercise. These pedestrian zones are part of an effort to combat chronic diseases, including obesity.[90] To identify which public health strategies are effective, a Cochrane overview of reviews is in preparation.[91] Physical exercise was said to decrease healthcare costs, increase the rate of job attendance, as well as increase the amount of effort women put into their jobs.[92] Children will mimic the behavior of their parents in relation to physical exercise. Parents can thus promote physical activity and limit the amount of time children spend in front of screens which may decrease the risk of childhood obesity.[93] Overweight children who participate in physical exercise experience greater loss of body fat and increased cardiovascular fitness. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States, both children and adults should do 60 minutes or more of physical activity each day.[94] Implementing physical exercise in the school system and ensuring an environment in which children can reduce barriers to maintain a healthy lifestyle is essential. Exercise trends[edit] Main article: Exercise trends Worldwide there has been a large shift towards less physically demanding work.[95] This has been accompanied by increasing use of mechanized transportation, a greater prevalence of labor saving technology in the home, and fewer active recreational pursuits.[95] Personal lifestyle changes however can correct the lack of physical exercise. Research in 2015 indicates integrating mindfulness to physical exercise interventions increases exercise adherence, self-efficacy and also has positive effects both psychologically and physiologically.[96] Nutrition and recovery[edit] Proper nutrition is as important to health as exercise. When exercising, it becomes even more important to have a good diet to ensure that the body has the correct ratio of macronutrients while providing ample micronutrients, in order to aid the body with the recovery process following strenuous exercise.[97] Active recovery is recommended after participating in physical exercise because it removes lactate from the blood more quickly than inactive recovery. Removing lactate from circulation allows for an easy decline in body temperature, which can also benefit the immune system, as an individual may be vulnerable to minor illnesses if the body temperature drops too abruptly after physical exercise.[98] History[edit] The benefits of exercise have been known since antiquity. Marcus Cicero, around 65 BCE, stated: "It is exercise alone that supports the spirits, and keeps the mind in vigor."[99] Several mass exercise movements were started in the early twentieth century to realise the benefits of exercise. The first and most significant of these in the UK was the Women's League of Health and Beauty founded in 1930 by Mary Bagot Stack that had 166,000 members in 1937.[100] However, the link between physical health and exercise (or lack of it) was only discovered in 1949 and reported in 1953 by a team led by Jerry Morris.[101][102] Dr. Morris noted that men of similar social class and occupation (bus conductors versus bus drivers) had markedly different rates of heart attacks, depending on the level of exercise they got: bus drivers had a sedentary occupation and a higher incidence of heart disease, while bus conductors were forced to move continually and had a lower incidence of heart disease.[102] This link had not previously been noted and was later confirmed by other researchers. Other animals[edit] Physical exercise has been shown to benefit a wide range of other mammals, as well as salmon, juvenile crocodiles, and at least one species of bird.[103] However, several studies have shown that lizards display no benefit from exercise, leading them to be termed "metabolically inflexible".[104] Indeed, damage from overtraining may occur following weeks of forced treadmill exercise in lizards.[104] A number of studies of both rodents and humans have demonstrated that individual differences in both ability and propensity for exercise (i.e., voluntary exercise) have some genetic basis.[105][106] Several studies of rodents have demonstrated that maternal [107] or juvenile access to wheels that allow voluntary exercise can increase the propensity to run as adults.[108] These studies further suggest that physical activity may be more "programmable" (for discusison, see Thrifty phenotype) than food intake.[109] See also[edit] Health and fitness portal Medicine portal Society portal Sports portal Main article: Outline of exercise Active living Behavioural change theories Exercise hypertension Exercise-induced nausea Exercise intensity Exercise intolerance Exercise-induced anaphylaxis Exercise-induced asthma Kinesiology Metabolic equivalent Supercompensation Physical fitness References[edit] Jump up^ Health is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or social challenges.[1] The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in its 1948 constitution as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."[2][3] This definition has been subject to controversy, in particular as lacking operational value and because of the problem created by use of the word "complete" [4][5][6] Other definitions have been proposed, among which a recent definition that correlates health and personal satisfaction.[7][8] Classification systems such as the WHO Family of International Classifications, including the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), are commonly used to define and measure the components of health. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Determinants 2.1 Potential issues 3 Mental health 4 Maintaining health 4.1 Diet 4.2 Exercise 4.3 Sleep 4.4 Role of science 4.5 Role of public health 4.6 Self-care strategies 5 Occupational health 6 See also 7 References 8 External links History[edit] The definition of health has evolved over time. In keeping with the biomedical perspective, early definitions of health focused on the theme of the body's ability to function; health was seen as a state of normal function that could be disrupted from time to time by disease. An example of such a definition of health is: "a state characterized by anatomic, physiologic, and psychological integrity; ability to perform personally valued family, work, and community roles; ability to deal with physical, biologic, psychological, and social stress".[9] Then, in 1948, in a radical departure from previous definitions, the World Health Organization (WHO)proposed a definition that aimed higher, linking health to well-being, in terms of "physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity".[10] Although this definition was welcomed by some as being innovative, it was also criticized as being vague, excessively broad, and was not construed as measurable. For a long time it was set aside as an impractical ideal and most discussions of health returned to the practicality of the biomedical model.[11] Just as there was a shift from viewing disease as a state to thinking of it as a process, the same shift happened in definitions of health. Again, the WHO played a leading role when it fostered the development of the health promotion movement in the 1980s. This brought in a new conception of health, not as a state, but in dynamic terms of resiliency, in other words, as "a resource for living". The 1984 WHO revised definition of health defined it as "the extent to which an individual or group is able to realize aspirations and satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment. Health is a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living; it is a positive concept, emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities".[12] Thus, health referred to the ability to maintain homeostasis and recover from insults. Mental, intellectual, emotional, and social health referred to a person's ability to handle stress, to acquire skills, to maintain relationships, all of which form resources for resiliency and independent living.[11] Since the late 1970s, the federal Healthy People Initiative has been a visible component of the United States’ approach to improving population health. In each decade, a new version of Healthy People is issued (see history of healthy people), featuring updated goals and identifying topic areas and quantifiable objectives for health improvement during the succeeding ten years, with assessment at that point of progress or lack thereof. Progress has been limited for many objectives, leading to concerns about the effectiveness of Healthy People in shaping outcomes in the context of a decentralized and uncoordinated US health system. Healthy People 2020 gives more prominence to health promotion and preventive approaches, and adds a substantive focus on the importance of addressing societal determinants of health. A new expanded digital interface facilitates use and dissemination rather than bulky printed books as produced in the past. The impact of these changes to Healthy People will be determined in the coming years.[13] Systematic activities to prevent or cure health problems and promote good health in humans are undertaken by health care providers. Applications with regard to animal health are covered by the veterinary sciences. The term "healthy" is also widely used in the context of many types of non-living organizations and their impacts for the benefit of humans, such as in the sense of healthy communities, healthy cities or healthy environments. In addition to health care interventions and a person's surroundings, a number of other factors are known to influence the health status of individuals, including their background, lifestyle, and economic, social conditions, and spirituality; these are referred to as "determinants of health." Studies have shown that high levels of stress can affect human health.[14] Determinants[edit] See also: Social determinants of health and Risk factor Generally, the context in which an individual lives is of great importance for both his health status and quality of their life. It is increasingly recognized that health is maintained and improved not only through the advancement and application of health science, but also through the efforts and intelligent lifestyle choices of the individual and society. According to the World Health Organization, the main determinants of health include the social and economic environment, the physical environment, and the person's individual characteristics and behaviors.[15] More specifically, key factors that have been found to influence whether people are healthy or unhealthy include the following:[15][16][17] Income and social status Social support networks Education and literacy Employment/working conditions Social environments Physical environments Personal health practices and coping skills Healthy child development Biology and genetics Health care services Gender Culture Donald Henderson as part of the CDC's smallpox eradication team in 1966. An increasing number of studies and reports from different organizations and contexts examine the linkages between health and different factors, including lifestyles, environments, health care organization, and health policy – such as the 1974Lalonde report from Canada;[17] the Alameda County Study in California;[18] and the series of World Health Reports of the World Health Organization, which focuses on global health issues including access to health care and improving public healthoutcomes, especially in developing countries.[19] The concept of the "health field," as distinct from medical care, emerged from the Lalonde report from Canada. The report identified three interdependent fields as key determinants of an individual's health. These are:[17] Lifestyle: the aggregation of personal decisions (i.e., over which the individual has control) that can be said to contribute to, or cause, illness or death; Environmental: all matters related to health external to the human body and over which the individual has little or no control; Biomedical: all aspects of health, physical and mental, developed within the human body as influenced by genetic make-up. The maintenance and promotion of health is achieved through different combination of physical, mental, and social well-being, together sometimes referred to as the "health triangle."[20][21] The WHO's 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion further stated that health is not just a state, but also "a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities."[22] Focusing more on lifestyle issues and their relationships with functional health, data from the Alameda County Study suggested that people can improve their health via exercise, enough sleep, maintaining a healthy body weight, limiting alcohol use, and avoiding smoking.[23] Health and illness can co-exist, as even people with multiple chronic diseases or terminal illnesses can consider themselves healthy.[24] The environment is often cited as an important factor influencing the health status of individuals. This includes characteristics of the natural environment, the built environment, and the social environment. Factors such as clean water and air, adequate housing, and safe communities and roads all have been found to contribute to good health, especially to the health of infants and children.[15][25] Some studies have shown that a lack of neighborhood recreational spaces including natural environment leads to lower levels of personal satisfaction and higher levels of obesity, linked to lower overall health and well being.[26] This suggests that the positive health benefits of natural space in urban neighborhoods should be taken into account in public policy and land use. Genetics, or inherited traits from parents, also play a role in determining the health status of individuals and populations. This can encompass both thepredisposition to certain diseases and health conditions, as well as the habits and behaviors individuals develop through the lifestyle of their families. For example, genetics may play a role in the manner in which people cope with stress, either mental, emotional or physical. For example, obesity is a very large problem in the United States[citation needed] that contributes to bad mental health and causes stress in a lot of people's lives. (One difficulty is the issue raised by the debate over the relative strengths of genetics and other factors; interactions between genetics and environment may be of particular importance.) Potential issues[edit] This section has an unclear citation style. The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of citation, footnoting, or external linking. (March 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) There are a lot of types of health issues common with many people across the globe. Disease is one of the most common. According to GlobalIssues.org, approximately 36 million people die each year from non-communicable (not contagious) disease including cardiovascular disease cancer, diabetes, and chronic lung disease (Shah, 2014).[27] As for communicable diseases, both viral and bacterial, AIDS/HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria are the most common also causing millions of deaths every year (2014). Another health issue that causes death or contributes to other health problems is malnutrition majorly among children. One of the groups malnutrition affects most is young children. Approximately 7.5 million children under the age of 5 die from malnutrition, and it is usually brought on by not having the money to find or make food (2014). Bodily injuries are also a common health issue worldwide. These injuries, including broken bones, fractures, and burns can reduce a person's quality of life or can cause fatalities including infections that resulted from the injury or the severity injury in general (Moffett, 2013).[28] Some contributing factors to poor health are lifestyle choices. These include smoking cigarettes, which according to LIVESTRONG.com kills 443,000 people each year (2013). It also can include a poor diet, whether it is overeating or an overly constrictive diet. Inactivity can also contribute to health issues and also a lack of sleep, excessive alcohol consumption, and neglect of oral hygiene (2013). There are also genetic disorders that are inherited by the person and can vary in how much they affect the person and when they surface (2013). The one health issue that is the most unfortunate because the majority of these health issues are preventable is that approximately 1 billion people lack access to health care systems (Shah, 2014). It is easy to say that the most common and harmful health issue is that a lot of people do not have access to quality remedies.[29][30] Mental health[edit] Main article: Mental health The World Health Organization describes mental health as "a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community".[31] Mental Health is not just the absence of mental illness.[32] Mental illness is described as 'the spectrum of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral conditions that interfere with social and emotional well-being and the lives and productivity of people. Having a mental illness can seriously impair, temporarily or permanently, the mental functioning of a person. Other terms include: 'mental health problem', 'illness', 'disorder', 'dysfunction'. (Hungerford et al. 2012). Roughly a quarter of all adults 18 and over in the US suffer from a diagnosable mental illness. Mental illnesses are the leading cause of disability in the US and Canada. Examples include, schizophrenia, ADHD, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and autism.[33] Many teens suffer from mental health issues in response to the pressures of society and social problems they encounter. Some of the key mental health issues seen in teens are: depression, eating disorders, and drug abuse. There are many ways to prevent these health issues from occurring such as communicating well with a teen suffering from mental health issues. Mental health can be treated and be attentive to teens' behavior.[34] Maintaining health[edit] Achieving and maintaining health is an ongoing process, shaped by both the evolution of health care knowledge and practices as well as personal strategies and organized interventions for staying healthy. Diet[edit] Main articles: Healthy diet and Human nutrition Percentage of overweight or obese population in 2010, Data source: OECD's i, retrieved 2013-12-12[35] Percentage of obese population in 2010, Data source: OECD's ietrieved 2013-12-13[36] An important way to maintain your personal health is to have a healthy diet. A healthy diet includes a variety of plant-based and animal-based foods that provide nutrients to your body. Such nutrients give you energy and keep your body running. Nutrients help build and strengthen bones, muscles, and tendons and also regulate body processes (i.e. blood pressure). The food guide pyramid is a pyramid-shaped guide of healthy foods divided into sections. Each section shows the recommended intake for each food group (i.e. Protein, Fat, Carbohydrates, and Sugars). Making healthy food choices is important because it can lower your risk of heart disease, developing some types of cancer, and it will contribute to maintaining a healthy weight.[37] The Mediterranean diet is commonly associated with health-promoting effects due to the fact that it contains some bioactive compounds like phenolic compounds, isoprenoids and alkaloids.[38] Exercise[edit] Main article: Physical exercise Physical exercise enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It strengthens muscles and improves the cardiovascular system. Sleep[edit] Main articles: Sleep and Sleep deprivation Sleep is an essential component to maintaining health. In children, sleep is also vital for growth and development. Ongoingsleep deprivation has been linked to an increased risk for some chronic health problems. In addition, sleep deprivation has been shown to correlate with both increased susceptibility to illness and slower recovery times from illness.[39] In one study, people with chronic insufficient sleep, set as six hours of sleep a night or less, were found to be four times more likely to catch a cold compared to those who reported sleeping for seven hours or more a night.[40] Due to the role of sleep in regulatingmetabolism, insufficient sleep may also play a role in weight gain or, conversely, in impeding weight loss.[41] Additionally, in 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, which is the cancer research agency for the World Health Organization, declared that "shiftwork that involves circadian disruption is probably carcinogenic to humans," speaking to the dangers of long-term nighttime work due to its intrusion on sleep.[42] In 2015, the National Sleep Foundation released updated recommendations for sleep duration requirements based on age and concluded that "Individuals who habitually sleep outside the normal range may be exhibiting signs or symptoms of serious health problems or, if done volitionally, may be compromising their health and well-being."[43] Age and condition Sleep Needs Newborns (0–3 months) 14 to 17 hours Infants (4–11 months) 12 to 15 hours Toddlers (1–2 years) 11 to 14 hours Preschoolers (3–5 years) 10 to 13 hours School-age children (6–13 years) 9 to 11 hours Teenagers (14–17 years) 8 to 10 hours Adults (18–64 years) 7 to 9 hours Older Adults (65 years and over) 7 to 8 hours Role of science[edit] Main articles: Health science and Health care The Dutch Public Health Service provides medical care for the natives of the Dutch East Indies, May 1946 Health science is the branch of science focused on health. There are two main approaches to health science: the study andresearch of the body and health-related issues to understand how humans (and animals) function, and the application of that knowledge to improve health and to prevent and cure diseases and other physical and mental impairments. The science builds on many sub-fields, including biology, biochemistry, physics, epidemiology, pharmacology, medical sociology. Applied health sciences endeavor to better understand and improve human health through applications in areas such as health education, biomedical engineering, biotechnology and public health. Organized interventions to improve health based on the principles and procedures developed through the health sciences are provided by practitioners trained in medicine, nursing, nutrition, pharmacy, social work, psychology, occupational therapy,physical therapy and other health care professions. Clinical practitioners focus mainly on the health of individuals, while public health practitioners consider the overall health of communities and populations. Workplace wellness programs are increasingly adopted by companies for their value in improving the health and well-being of their employees, as are school health services in order to improve the health and well-being of children. Role of public health[edit] Main article: Public health See also: Global health Postage stamp, New Zealand, 1933. Public health has been promoted – and depicted – in a wide variety of ways. Public health has been described as "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals."[44] It is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. The population in question can be as small as a handful of people or as large as all the inhabitants of several continents (for instance, in the case of a pandemic). Public health has many sub-fields, but typically includes the interdisciplinary categories of epidemiology, biostatistics and health services.Environmental health, community health, behavioral health, and occupational health are also important areas of public health. The focus of public health interventions is to prevent and manage diseases, injuries and other health conditions through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy behavior, communities, and (in aspects relevant to human health) environments. Its aim is to prevent health problems from happening or re-occurring by implementing educational programs, developing policies, administering services and conducting research.[45] In many cases, treating a disease or controlling a pathogen can be vital to preventing it in others, such as during an outbreak. Vaccination programs and distribution of condoms to prevent the spread of communicable diseases are examples of common preventive public health measures, as are educational campaigns to promote vaccination and the use of condoms (including overcoming resistance to such). Public health also takes various actions to limit the health disparities between different areas of the country and, in some cases, thecontinent or world. One issue is the access of individuals and communities to health care in terms of financial, geographical or socio-cultural constraints to accessing and using services.[citation needed] Applications of the public health system include the areas ofmaternal and child health, health services administration, emergency response, and prevention and control of infectious and chronic diseases. The great positive impact of public health programs is widely acknowledged. Due in part to the policies and actions developed through public health, the 20th century registered a decrease in the mortality rates for infants and children and a continual increase in life expectancy in most parts of the world. For example, it is estimated that life expectancy has increased for Americans by thirty years since 1900,[46] and worldwide by six years since 1990.[47] Self-care strategies[edit] Main article: Self care See also: Chronic care management, Social relation, and Stress management A lady washing her hands c. 1655 Personal health depends partially on the active, passive, and assisted cues people observe and adopt about their own health. These include personal actions for preventing or minimizing the effects of a disease, usually a chronic condition, through integrative care. They also include personal hygiene practices to prevent infection and illness, such as bathing and washing hands with soap;brushing and flossing teeth; storing, preparing and handling food safely; and many others. The information gleaned from personalobservations of daily living – such as about sleep patterns, exercise behavior, nutritional intake and environmental features – may be used to inform personal decisions and actions (e.g., "I feel tired in the morning so I am going to try sleeping on a different pillow"), as well as clinical decisions and treatment plans (e.g., a patient who notices his or her shoes are tighter than usual may be having exacerbation of left-sided heart failure, and may require diuretic medication to reduce fluid overload).[48] Personal health also depends partially on the social structure of a person's life. The maintenance of strong social relationships,volunteering, and other social activities have been linked to positive mental health and also increased longevity. One American study among seniors over age 70, found that frequent volunteering was associated with reduced risk of dying compared with older persons who did not volunteer, regardless of physical health status.[49] Another study from Singapore reported that volunteering retirees had significantly better cognitive performance scores, fewer depressive symptoms, and better mental well-being and life satisfaction than non-volunteering retirees.[50] Prolonged psychological stress may negatively impact health, and has been cited as a factor in cognitive impairment with aging, depressive illness, and expression of disease.[51] Stress management is the application of methods to either reduce stress or increase tolerance to stress. Relaxation techniques are physical methods used to relieve stress. Psychological methods include cognitive therapy, meditation, and positive thinking, which work by reducing response to stress. Improving relevant skills, such as problem solving and time management skills, reduces uncertainty and builds confidence, which also reduces the reaction to stress-causing situations where those skills are applicable. Occupational health[edit] Main article: Occupational safety and health In addition to safety risks, many jobs also present risks of disease, illness and other long-term health problems. Among the most common occupational diseasesare various forms of pneumoconiosis, including silicosis and coal worker's pneumoconiosis (black lung disease). Asthma is another respiratory illness that many workers are vulnerable to. Workers may also be vulnerable to skin diseases, including eczema, dermatitis, urticaria, sunburn, and skin cancer.[52][53] Other occupational diseases of concern include carpal tunnel syndrome and lead poisoning. As the number of service sector jobs has risen in developed countries, more and more jobs have become sedentary, presenting a different array of health problems than those associated with manufacturing and the primary sector. Contemporary problems, such as the growing rate of obesity and issues relating tostress and overwork in many countries, have further complicated the interaction between work and health. Many governments view occupational health as a social challenge and have formed public organizations to ensure the health and safety of workers. Examples of these include the British Health and Safety Executive and in the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, which conducts research on occupational health and safety, and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which handles regulation and policy relating to worker safety and health.[54][55][56] See also[edit] Book: Health Global burden of disease Health workforce History of medicine Human enhancement One Health Primary health care . Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of exercises requiring strength, flexibility, balance and control. Gymnastics evolved from exercises used by the ancient Greeks that included skills for mounting and dismounting a horse, and from circus performance skills. In international, competitive gymnastics all events are governed by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique (FIG). Each country has its own national governing body (BIW) affiliated to FIG. Competitiveartistic gymnastics is the best known of the gymnastic events. It typically involves the women's events of vault, uneven bars, balance beam and floor exercise. Men's events are floor exercise, pommel horse, still rings, vault, parallel bars and horizontal bar. Other FIG disciplines include rhythmic gymnastics, trampolining and tumbling, and aerobic gymnastics. Disciplines not currently recognized by FIG include aesthetic group gymnastics, men's rhythmic gymnastics and TeamGym. Participants can include children as young as 20 months old doing kindergym and children's gymnastics, recreational gymnasts of ages 5 and up, competitive gymnasts at varying levels of skill, and world-class athletes. Contents [hide] 1 Etymology 2 History 3 International competitive gymnastics 3.1 Artistic gymnastics 3.1.1 Artistic events for women 3.1.1.1 Vault 3.1.1.2 Uneven bars 3.1.1.3 Balance beam 3.1.1.4 Floor 3.1.2 Artistic events for men 3.1.2.1 Floor 3.1.2.2 Pommel horse 3.1.2.3 Still rings 3.1.2.4 Vault 3.1.2.5 Parallel bars 3.1.2.6 Horizontal bar 3.1.3 Scoring (code of points) 3.1.3.1 Landing 3.2 Rhythmic gymnastics 3.2.1 Rhythmic gymnastics apparatus 3.3 Trampolining and tumbling 3.3.1 Trampolining 3.3.1.1 Individual trampoline 3.3.1.2 Synchronized trampoline 3.3.1.3 Double-mini trampoline 3.3.2 Tumbling 3.4 Acrobatic gymnastics 3.5 Aerobic gymnastics 4 Other disciplines 4.1 Aesthetic group gymnastics 4.2 Men's rhythmic gymnastics 4.3 TeamGym 5 Non-competitive gymnastics 6 Former apparatus and events 6.1 Rope (rhythmic gymnastics) 6.2 Rope climbing 6.3 Flying rings 7 Popular culture 7.1 Books 7.2 Films 7.3 Television 7.4 Video games 8 See also 9 References 10 External links Etymology[edit] The word gymnastics derives from the common Greek adjective γυμνός (gymnos) meaning "naked",[1] by way of the related verb γυμνάζω (gymnazo), whose meaning is to train naked", "train in gymnastic exercise", generally "to train, to exercise".[2] The verb had this meaning, because athletes in ancient times exercised and competed without clothing. It came into use in the 1570s, from Latin gymnasticus, from Greek gymnastikos "fond of or skilled in bodily exercise," from gymnazein "to exercise or train" (see gymnasium). History[edit] Modern gymnastics originated in ancient Greece, and was originally intended for military training, where it was used by soldiers to prepare for war. In the late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Germany, two pioneer physical educators – Johann Friedrich GutsMuths (1759–1839) and Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (1778–1852) – created exercises for boys and young men on apparatus they had designed that ultimately led to what is considered modern gymnastics. Don Francisco Amorós y Ondeano, was born on February 19, 1770 in Valence and died on August 8, 1848 in Paris. He was a Spanish colonel, and the first person to introduce educative gymnastic in France. Jahn promoted the use of parallel bars, rings and high bars in international competition.[3] Early 20th-century gymnastics in Stockholm, Sweden The Federation of International Gymnastics (FIG) was founded in Liege in 1881.[4] By the end of the nineteenth century, men's gymnastics competition was popular enough to be included in the first "modern" Olympic Games in 1896. From then on until the early 1950s, both national and international competitions involved a changing variety of exercises gathered under the rubric, gymnastics, that included for example, synchronized team floor calisthenics, rope climbing, high jumping, running, and horizontal ladder. During the 1920s, women organized and participated in gymnastics events. The first women's Olympic competition was primitive, only involving synchronized calisthenics and track and field. These games were held in 1928, in Amsterdam. By 1954, Olympic Games apparatus and events for both men and women had been standardized in modern format, and uniform grading structures (including a point system from 1 to 15) had been agreed upon. At this time, Soviet gymnasts astounded the world with highly disciplined and difficult performances, setting a precedent that continues. Television has helped publicize and initiate a modern age of gymnastics. Both men's and women's gymnastics now attract considerable international interest, and excellent gymnasts can be found on every continent. In 2006, a new points system for Artistic gymnastics was put into play. With an A Score (or D score) being the difficulty score, which as of 2009 is based on the top 8 high scoring elements in a routine (excluding Vault). The B Score (or E Score), is the score for execution, and is given for how well the skills are performed.[5] International competitive gymnastics[edit] See also: List of gymnastics competitions See also: Major achievements in gymnastics by nation Artistic gymnastics[edit] Main article: Artistic gymnastics Artistic Gymnastics is usually divided into Men's and Women's Gymnastics. Men compete on six events: Floor Exercise, Pommel Horse, Still Rings, Vault, Parallel Bars, and Horizontal Bar, while women compete on four: Vault, Uneven Bars, Balance Beam, and Floor Exercise. In some countries, women at one time competed on the rings, high bar, and parallel bars (for example, in the 1950s in the USSR). In 2006, FIG introduced a new points system for Artistic gymnastics in which scores are no longer limited to 10 points. The system is used in the US for elite level competition.[5] Unlike the old code of points, there are two separate scores, an execution score and a difficulty score. In the previous system, the "execution score" was the only score. It was and still is out of 10.00, except for short exercises. During the gymnast's performance, the judges deduct this score only. A fall, on or off the event, is a 1.00 deduction, in elite level gymnastics. The introduction of the difficulty score is a significant change. The gymnast's difficulty score is based on what elements they perform and is subject to change if they do not perform or complete all the skills, or they do not connect a skill meant to be connected to another. Connection bonuses are where deviation happens most common between the intended and actual difficulty scores, as it can be difficult to connect multiple flight elements. It is very hard to connect skills if the first skill is not performed correctly. The new code of points allows the gymnasts to gain higher scores based on the difficulty of the skills they perform as well as their execution. There is no maximum score for difficulty, as it can keep increasing as the difficulty of the skills increase. Artistic events for women[edit] Piked Tsukahara vault. Vault[edit] Main article: Vault In the vaulting events, gymnasts sprint down a 25 metres (82 ft) runway, jump onto a springboard (or perform a roundoff or handspring entry onto a springboard), land momentarily inverted on the hands on the vaulting horse or vaulting table (pre-flight segment), then propel themselves forward or backward off that platform to a two-footed landing (post-flight segment). Every gymnast starts at a different point on the vault runway depending on their height and strength. The post-flight segment may include one or more multiple saltos, somersaults, or twisting movements. A round-off entry vault, called a Yurchenko, is the most common vault in the higher levels in gymnastics. When performing a Yurchenko, gymnasts "round off" so their hands are on the runway while their feet land on the springboard. From the roundoff position, the gymnast travels backwards and executes a back handspring so that the hands land on the vaulting table. The gymnast then blocks off the vaulting platform into various twisting and/or somersaulting combinations. The post-flight segment brings the gymnast to her feet. In the lower levels of gymnastics, the gymnasts do not perform this move. These gymnasts will jump onto the springboard with both feet at the same time and either do a front handspring onto the vault or a roundoff onto the vault. In 2001, the traditional vaulting horse was replaced with a new apparatus, sometimes known as a tongue, horse or vaulting table. The new apparatus is more stable, wider, and longer than the older vaulting horse, approximately 1 m in length and 1 m in width, giving gymnasts a larger blocking surface. This apparatus is thus considered safer than the vaulting horse used in the past. With the addition of this new, safer vaulting table, gymnasts are attempting more difficult and dangerous vaults.[6] Gymnast on uneven bars. Uneven bars[edit] Main article: Uneven bars On the uneven bars, the gymnast performs a timed routine on two horizontal bars set at different heights. These bars are made of fiberglass covered in wood laminate, to prevent them from breaking. In the past, bars were made of wood, but the bars were prone to breaking, providing an incentive to switch to newer technologies. The width and height of the bars may be adjusted to the size needed by individual gymnasts. In the past, the uneven parallel bars were closer together. The bars have been moved increasingly further apart, allowing gymnasts to perform swinging, circling, transitional, and release moves that may pass over, under, and between the two bars. At the Elite level, movements must pass through the handstand. Gymnasts often mount the uneven bars using a springboard or a small mat. Chalk and grips (a leather strip with holes for fingers to protect hands and improve performance) may be used by gymnasts performing this event. The chalk helps take the moisture out of gymnasts' hands to decrease friction and prevent rips (tears to the skin of the hands); dowel grips help gymnasts grip the bar. Balance beam[edit] Dorina Böczögő performing a one arm press hold during her balance beam mount, 2013. Main article: Balance beam The gymnast performs a choreographed routine of up to 90 seconds in length consisting of leaps, acrobatic skills, somersaults, turns and dance elements on a padded beam. The beam is 125 centimetres (4 ft 1 in) from the ground, 500 centimetres (16 ft 5 in) long, and 10 centimetres (3.9 in) wide.[7] This stationary object can also be adjusted, it can be raised higher or lower.The event requires, in particular, balance, flexibility, poise and strength. Floor[edit] Gymnast doing a stag leap on floor exercise. Main article: Floor In the past, the floor exercise event was executed on the bare floor or mats such as wrestling mats. Today, the floor event occurs on a carpeted 12m × 12m square, usually consisting of hard foam over a layer of plywood, which is supported by springs or foam blocks generally called a "spring" floor. This provides a firm surface that provides extra bounce or spring when compressed, allowing gymnasts to achieve greater height and a softer landing after the composed skill. Gymnasts perform a choreographed routine up to 90 seconds in the floor exercise event; Depending on the level, they may choose their own, or, if known as a "compulsory gymnast," default music must be played. Levels three to six the music is the same for each levels along with the skills within the routine. In the elite levels (levels seven to ten) there are skill requirements for the routine but the athlete is able to pick her own music without any words. The routine should consist of tumbling lines, series of jumps, leaps, dance elements, acrobatic skills, and turns, or piviots, on one foot. A gymnast can perform up to four tumbling lines that usually includes at least one flight element without hand support. Each level of gymnastics requires the athlete to perform a different number of tumbling passes. In level 7 in the United States, a gymnast is required to do 2–3, and in levels 8–10, at least 3–4 tumbling passes are required.[8] Artistic events for men[edit] Floor[edit] Main article: Floor Male gymnasts also perform on a 12meter x 12meter spring floor. A series of tumbling passes are performed to demonstrate flexibility, strength, and balance. Strength skills include circles, scales, and press handstands. Men's floor routines usually have multiple passes that have to total between 60–70 seconds and are performed without music, unlike the women's event. Rules require that male gymnasts touch each corner of the floor at least once during their routine. Chris Cameron on the pommel horse Pommel horse[edit] Main article: Pommel Horse A typical pommel horse exercise involves both single leg and double leg work. Single leg skills are generally found in the form of scissors, an element often done on the pommels. Double leg work however, is the main staple of this event. The gymnast swings both legs in a circular motion (clockwise or counterclockwise depending on preference) and performs such skills on all parts of the apparatus. To make the exercise more challenging, gymnasts will often include variations on a typical circling skill by turning (moores and spindles) or by straddling their legs (Flares). Routines end when the gymnast performs a dismount, either by swinging his body over the horse, or landing after a handstand variation. Still rings[edit] Main article: Still Rings The rings are suspended on wire cable from a point 5.75 meters from the floor. The gymnasts must perform a routine demonstrating balance, strength, power, and dynamic motion while preventing the rings themselves from swinging. At least one static strength move is required, but some gymnasts may include two or three. A routine ends with a dismount. Vault[edit] Main article: Vault Gymnasts sprint down a runway, which is a maximum of 25 meters in length, before hurdling onto a spring board. The gymnast is allowed to choose where they start on the runway. The body position is maintained while "punching" (blocking using only a shoulder movement) the vaulting platform. The gymnast then rotates to a standing position. In advanced gymnastics, multiple twists and somersaults may be added before landing. Successful vaults depend on the speed of the run, the length of the hurdle, the power the gymnast generates from the legs and shoulder girdle, the kinesthetic awareness in the air, how well they stuck the landing and the speed of rotation in the case of more difficult and complex vaults. Parallel bars[edit] Main article: Parallel Bars Men perform on two bars executing a series of swings, balances, and releases that require great strength and coordination. The width between the bars is adjustable dependent upon the actual needs of the gymnasts and usually 2m high,. Horizontal bar[edit] Main article: Horizontal Bar A 2.8 cm thick steel or fiberglass bar raised 2.5m above the landing area is all the gymnast has to hold onto as he performs giant swings or giants (revolutions around the bar in the handstand position), release skills, twists, and changes of direction. By using all of the momentum from giants and then releasing at the proper point, enough height can be achieved for spectacular dismounts, such as a triple-back salto. Leather grips are usually used to help maintain a grip on the bar. As with women, male gymnasts are also judged on all of their events including their execution, degree of difficulty, and overall presentation skills. Scoring (code of points)[edit] Main article: Code of Points A gymnast's score comes from deductions taken from their start value. The start value of a routine is based on the difficulty of the elements the gymnast attempts and whether or not the gymnast meets composition requirements. The composition requirements are different for each apparatus; this score is called the D score.[9] Deductions in execution and artistry are taken from a maximum of 10.0. This score is called the E score.[10] The final score is calculated by taking deductions from the E score, and adding the result to the D score.[11] Since 2007, the scoring system has changed by adding bonus plus the execution and then adding those two together to get the final score. Landing[edit] In a tumbling pass, dismount or vault, landing is the final phase, following take off and flight [12] This is a critical skill in terms of execution in competition scores, general performance, and injury occurrence. Without the necessary magnitude of energy dissipation during impact, the risk of sustaining injuries during somersaulting increases. These injuries commonly occur at the lower extremities such as: cartilage lesions, ligament tears, and bone bruises/fractures.[13] To avoid such injuries, and to receive a high performance score, proper technique must be used by the gymnast. "The subsequent ground contact or impact landing phase must be achieved using a safe, aesthetic and well-executed double foot landing." [14] A successful landing in gymnastics is classified as soft, meaning the knee and hip joints are at greater than 63 degrees of flexion.[12] A higher flight phase results in a higher vertical ground reaction force. Vertical ground reaction force represents external force which the gymnasts have to overcome with their muscle force and affects the gymnasts' linear and angular momentum. Another important variable that affects linear and angular momentum is time the landing takes. Gymnasts can decrease the impact force by increasing the time taken to perform the landing. Gymnasts can achieve this by increasing hip, knee and ankle amplitude.[12] Rhythmic gymnastics[edit] Russian rhythmic gymnast Irina Tchachina stretching in her warm-up before practice. Main article: Rhythmic gymnastics According to FIG rules, only women compete in rhythmic gymnastics. This is a sport that combines elements of ballet, gymnastics, dance, and apparatus manipulation. The sport involves the performance of five separate routines with the use of five apparatus; ball, ribbon, hoop, clubs, rope—on a floor area, with a much greater emphasis on the aesthetic rather than the acrobatic. There are also group routines consisting of 5 gymnasts and 5 apparatuses of their choice. Rhythmic routines are scored out of a possible 30 points; the score for artistry (choreography and music) is averaged with the score for difficulty of the moves and then added to the score for execution.[15] International competitions are split between Juniors, under sixteen by their year of birth; and Seniors, for women sixteen and over again by their year of birth. Gymnasts in Russia and Europe typically start training at a very young age and those at their peak are typically in their late teens (15–19) or early twenties. The largest events in the sport are the Olympic Games,World Championships, European Championships, World Cup and Grand-Prix Series. Rhythmic gymnastics apparatus[edit] Evgenia Kanaeva doing aSplit leap in her hoop routine Soviet Galina Shugurovaperforming an Attitude balance in her ball apparatus Ball It is made of either rubber or synthetic material (pliable plastic) provided it possesses the same elasticity as rubber. It is from 18 to 20 cm in diameter and must have a minimum weight of 400g. The ball can be of any colour and should rest in the gymnast's hand, not the wrist. Fundamental elements of a ball routine include throwing, bouncing, and rolling. The gymnast must use both hands and work on the whole floor area while showing continuous flowing movement. The ball is to emphasize the gymnast's flowing lines and body difficulty. Hoop A hoop is an apparatus in rhythmic gymnastics and may be made of plastic or wood, provided that it retains its shape during the routine. The interior diameter is from 51 to 90 cm, and the hoop must weigh a minimum of 300g. The hoop may be of a natural colour or be partially of fully covered by one or several colours, and it may be covered with adhesive tape either of the same or different colour as the hoop. Fundamental requirements of a hoop routine include rotation around the hand or body and rolling, as well as swings, circles, throws, and passes through and over the hoop. The routines in hoop involves mastery in both apparatus handling and body difficulty like leaps, jumps and pivots. Ribbon It is made of satin or another similar material cloth of any colour and may be multi-coloured as well as have designs on it. The ribbon itself must be at least 35g (1 oz), 4–6 cm (1.6–2.4") in width and for senior category a minimum length of 6m (20') (5m (16.25') for juniors). The ribbon must be in one piece. The end that is attached to the stick is doubled for a maximum length of 1m (3'). This is stitched down both sides. At the top, a very thin reinforcement or rows of machine stitching for a maximum length of 5 cm is authorized. This extremity may end in a strap, or have an eyelet (a small hole, edged with buttonhole stitch or a metal circle), to permit attaching the ribbon. The ribbon is fixed to the stick by means of a supple attachment such as thread, nylon cord, or a series of articulated rings. The attachment has a maximum length of 7 cm (2.8"), not counting the strap or metal ring at the end of the stick where it will be fastened. Compulsory elements for the ribbon include flicks, circles, snakes and spirals, and throws. It requires a high degree of co-ordination to form the spirals and circles as any knots which may accidentally form in the ribbon are penalised. During a ribbon routine, large, smooth and flowing movements are looked for. Clubs Multi-piece clubs are the most popular clubs. The club is built along an internal rod, providing a base on which a handle made of polyolefin plastic is wrapped, providing an airspace between it and the internal rod. This airspace provides flex, cushioning impact, making the club softer on the hands. Foam ends and knobs further cushion the club. Multi-piece clubs are made in both a thin European style or larger bodied American style and in various lengths, generally ranging from 19 to 21 inches (480 to 530 mm). The handles and bodies are typically wrapped with decorative plastics and tapes. The skills involved are apparatus mastery and body elements, Clubs are thrown from alternate hands; each passes underneath the other clubs and is caught in the opposite hand to the one from which it was thrown. At its simplest, each club rotates once per throw, the handle moving down and away from the throwing hand at first. However, double and triple spins are frequently performed, allowing the club to be thrown higher for more advanced patterns and to allow tricks such as 360s to be performed underneath. Trampolining and tumbling[edit] Double mini-trampoline competitor Main articles: Trampolining and Tumbling (gymnastics) Trampolining[edit] Trampolining and tumbling consists of four events, individual and synchronized trampoline, double mini trampoline, and tumbling (also known as power tumbling or rod floor). Since 2000, individual trampoline has been included in the Olympic Games. Individual trampoline[edit] Individual routines in trampolining involve a build-up phase during which the gymnast jumps repeatedly to achieve height, followed by a sequence of ten bounces without pause during which the gymnast performs a sequence of aerial skills. Routines are marked out of a maximum score of 10 points. Additional points (with no maximum at the highest levels of competition) can be earned depending on the difficulty of the moves and the length of time taken to complete the ten skills which is an indication of the average height of the jumps. In high level competitions, there are two preliminary routines, one which has only two moves scored for difficulty and one where the athlete is free to perform any routine. This is followed by a final routine which is optional. Some competitions restart the score from zero for the finals, other add the final score to the preliminary results. Synchronized trampoline[edit] Synchronized trampoline is similar except that both competitors must perform the routine together and marks are awarded for synchronization as well as the form and difficulty of the moves. Double-mini trampoline[edit] Double mini trampoline involves a smaller trampoline with a run-up, two moves are performed per routine. Moves cannot be repeated in the same order on the double-mini during a competition. Skills can be repeated if a skill is competed as a mounter in one routine and a dismount in another. The scores are marked in a similar manner to individual trampoline. Tumbling[edit] In tumbling, athletes perform an explosive series of flips and twists down a sprung tumbling track. Scoring is similar to trampolining. Tumbling was originally contested as one of the events in Men's Artistic Gymnastics at the 1932 Summer Olympics, and in 1955 and 1959 at the Pan American Games. From 1974 to 1998it was included as an event for both genders at the Acrobatic Gymnastics World Championships. The event has also been contested since 1976 at the Trampoline World Championships. Since the recognition of Trampoline and Acrobatic Gymnastics as FIG disciplines in 1999, official Tumbling competitions are only allowed as an event in Trampoline gymnastics meets. Acrobatic gymnastics[edit] Acrobatic Women's Pair performing a skill. Main article: Acrobatic gymnastics Acrobatic gymnastics (formerly Sport Acrobatics), often referred to as "Acro" if involved with the sport, acrobatic sports or simply sports acro, is a group gymnastic discipline for both men and women. Acrobats in groups of two, three and four perform routines with the heads, hands and feet of their partners. They may, subject to regulations (e.g. no lyrics), pick their own music. There are four international age categories: 11-16, 12-18, 13-19, and Senior (15+), which are used in the World Championships and many other events around the world, including European Championships and World Games. All levels require a balance and dynamic routine, 12-18, 13-19, and Seniors are also required to perform a final (combined) routine. Currently, acrobatic gymnastics is marked out of 30.00 (can be higher at Senior FIG level based on difficulty): 10.00 for routine difficulty, (valued from the tables of difficulties) 10.00 For technical performance, (how well the skills are executed) 10.00 For Artistry, (the overall performance of the routine, namely choreography) Aerobic gymnastics[edit] Main article: Aerobic gymnastics Aerobic gymnastics (formally Sport Aerobics) involves the performance of routines by individuals, pairs, trios or groups up to 6 people, emphasizing strength, flexibility, and aerobic fitness rather than acrobatic or balance skills. Routines are performed for all individuals on a 7x7m floor and also for 12–14 and 15-17 trios and mixed pairs. From 2009, all senior trios and mixed pairs were required to be on the larger floor (10x10m), all groups also perform on this floor. Routines generally last 60–90 seconds depending on age of participant and routine category. Other disciplines[edit] The following disciplines are not currently recognized by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique. Aesthetic group gymnastics[edit] Main article: Aesthetic group gymnastics Aesthetic Group Gymnastics (AGG) was developed from the Finnish "naisvoimistelu". It differs from Rhythmic Gymnastics in that body movement is large and continuous and teams are larger' Athletes do not use apparatus in international AGG competitions compared to Rhythmic Gymnastics where ball, ribbon, hoop and clubs are used on the floor area. The sport requires physical qualities such as flexibility, balance, speed, strength, coordination and sense of rhythm where movements of the body are emphasized through the flow, expression and aesthetic appeal. A good performance is characterized by uniformity and simultaneity. The competition program consists of versatile and varied body movements, such as body waves, swings, balances, pivots, jumps and leaps, dance steps, and lifts. The International Federation of Aesthetic Group Gymnastics (IFAGG) was established in 2003.[16] Men's rhythmic gymnastics[edit] Men's rhythmic gymnastics is related to both Men's artistic gymnastics and wushu martial arts. It emerged in Japan from stick gymnastics. Stick gymnastics has been taught and performed for many years with the aim of improving physical strength and health. Male athletes are judged on some of the same physical abilities and skills as their female counterparts, such as hand/body-eye co-ordination, but tumbling, strength, power, and martial arts skills are the main focus, as opposed to flexibility and dance in women's rhythmic gymnastics. There are a growing number of participants, competing alone and on a team; it is most popular in Asia, especially in Japan where high school and university teams compete fiercely. As of 2002, there were 1000 men's rhythmic gymnasts in Japan.[citation needed] The technical rules for the Japanese version of men's rhythmic gymnastics came around the 1970s. For individuals, only four types of apparatus are used: the double rings, the stick, the rope, and the clubs. Groups do not use any apparatus. The Japanese version includes tumbling performed on a spring floor. Points are awarded based a 10-point scale that measures the level of difficulty of the tumbling and apparatus handling. On November 27–29, 2003, Japan hosted first edition of the Men's Rhythmic Gymnastics World Championship. TeamGym[edit] Main article: TeamGym TeamGym is a form of competition created by the European Union of Gymnastics, named originally EuroTeam. The first official competition was held in Finland in 1996. TeamGym events consist of three sections: women, men and mixed teams. Athletes compete in three different disciplines: floor, tumbling and trampette. In common for the performance is effective teamwork, good technique in the elements and spectacular acrobatic skills.[17] Non-competitive gymnastics[edit] General gymnastics enables people of all ages and abilities to participate in performance groups of 6 to more than 150 athletes. They perform synchronized, choreographed routines. Troupes may consist of both genders and are not separated into age divisions. The largest general gymnastics exhibition is the quadrennial World Gymnaestrada which was first held in 1939. In 1984 Gymnastics for All was officially recognized first as a Sport Program by the FIG (International Gymnastic Federation), and subsequently by national gymnastic federations worldwide with participants that now number 30 million.[18] Former apparatus and events[edit] Rope (rhythmic gymnastics)[edit] Main article: Rope This apparatus may be made of hemp or a synthetic material which retains the qualities of lightness and suppleness. Its length is in proportion to the size of the gymnast. The rope should, when held down by the feet, reach both of the gymnasts' armpits. One or two knots at each end are for keeping hold of the rope while doing the routine. At the ends (to the exclusion of all other parts of the rope) an anti-slip material, either coloured or neutral may cover a maximum of 10 cm (3.94 in). The rope must be coloured, either all or partially and may either be of a uniform diameter or be progressively thicker in the center provided that this thickening is of the same material as the rope. The fundamental requirements of a rope routine include leaps and skipping. Other elements include swings, throws, circles, rotations and figures of eight. In 2011, the FIG decided to nullify the use of rope in rhythmic gymnastic competitions. Rope climbing[edit] Main article: Rope climbing Generally, competitors climbed either a 6m (6.1m = 20 ft in US) or an 8m (7.6m = 25 ft in US), 38 mm diameter (1.5-inch) natural fiber rope for speed, starting from a seated position on the floor and using only the hands and arms. Kicking the legs in a kind of "stride" was normally permitted. Many gymnasts can do this in the straddle or pike position, which eliminates the help generated from the legs though it can be done with legs as well. Flying rings[edit] Main article: Flying rings Flying rings was an event similar to still rings, but with the performer executing a series of stunts while swinging. It was a gymnastic event sanctioned by both theNCAA and the AAU until the early 1960s. Popular culture[edit] Books[edit] Little Girls in Pretty Boxes The Spirit of Gymnastics: The Biography of Hartley D'Oyley Price, by Tom Conkling, (1982); Films[edit] A Second Chance A State of Mind American Anthem Billy Elliot Flying Gymkata Little Girls in Pretty Boxes Nadia Peaceful Warrior Perfect Body Stick It The Gabby Douglas Story The Gymnast (Dreya Weber film) Television[edit] Make It or Break It Video games[edit] Athens 2004 Barbie Team Gymnastics Beijing 2008 Capcom's Gold Medal Challenge '92 Dance Aerobics Ener-G Gym Rockets Imagine: Gymnast London 2012 Mario & Sonic at the Olympic Games Mario & Sonic at the London 2012 Olympic Games Mario & Sonic at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games Shawn Johnson Gymnastics Summer Games See also[edit] Acrobatics Acro dance Cheerleading Gymnasium (ancient Greece) International Gymnastics Hall of Fame List of gymnastics competitions List of gymnastics terms List of gymnasts Major achievements in gymnastics by nation Majorettes NCAA Men's Gymnastics championship (US) NCAA Women's Gymnastics championship(US) Turners Wheel gymnastics World Gymnastics Championships EBAY3608 Condition: Used, Condition: VERY Good used condition. Folding signs. ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images ), Modified Item: No, Country/Region of Manufacture: Israel, Country of Manufacture: Israel

17gameble.com Insights 17gameble.com Exclusif
  •  Popularité - 146 vues, 2.4 views per day, 61 days on eBay. Très grande quantité sur vues. 0 vendu, 1 disponible.
  •  Prix -
  •  Vendeur - 2.001+ articles vendu. 0% évaluations négative. Grand vendeur avec la très bonne rétroaction positive et plus de 50 cotes.
Articles similaires Items
Sitemap